HISTORY

The first settlers to Burma 2500 years ago were Mon ethnic groups, followed later by the Pyu and later in the 10th century by the Burmese who still today present the majority of people.

The Mon had done trading with India and accepted Buddhism in the 3 century BC. In the era between 4th and 9th century AD, Pyu Kingdoms like Vishnu, Hanlin and Sri Khatra were established along Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) riverbanks.

In 9th century, the Burman group migrated from the Northeast Yunnan province of China to Burma. Along their migratory route, they settled down in the region of Nancho (Yunnan) but were attacked by the giant of that area. At last they arrived to the central plains of Burma and chose the fertilized land like Kyaukse- and Minbu area, practicing irrigated farming. The Burmans got conflicts with the Mon who was the original settlers in these areas.

In 1049, the Burmese King Anawratha successfully established the first Kingdom of Burma in Bagan and adopted the Theravada Buddhism from the Mon. The Mongol Tartar group destroyed this Kingdom in 1287.

The Shan, another ethnic group, were also trying to establish their Kingdom in the areas of Ava, Sagaing and Pinya but those did not last long.

In the 15th century another Burmese King - Bayinaung organized the small kingdoms in the whole area and established the second Kingdom of Burma called Hansawady in Bago (Pegu) area. But it didn’t last long as his successors were inefficient in maintaining the Kingdom well.

Between 17th and 18th century, a village headman by the name of U Aung Zaya (Alaungphaya) from Shwebo area established the third Burma Empire by organizing the Mon of lower Burma, the Shan of Upper Burma and set up the Kongbaung dynasty. But in those days, the colonialism and annexation of Asian countries to Great Britain and other Europeans already spread. As a consequence, Burma was completely colonized by the British in 1886. Burma regained only independence in 1948.

The “divide and rule” system practiced by the British had intensified conflicts between minority tribes and the majority Burmese. Civil war ignited.

In 1962, the Socialist group had taken power, trying for the country to be self-sufficient. In 1988, the military took responsibility from the socialist government up till 2010. The so called parliament democracy system is introduced into the country and the election was hold however most of the important places are still taken by the ex-military personnel.